Technology integration is a part of today’s classroom. Most of us teach in classrooms that are equipped with mobile technology and internet access where the students have access to one or several mobile devices. When the context is filled with technology and online tools, it’s possible to be distracted when we try to integrate it in our teaching. TPACK or Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge is a famous framework within instructional designer and teaching fields. This model suggests that each individual has different TK (Technological Knowledge), PK (Pedagogical Knowledge), and CK (Content Knowledge). Therefore, collaboration with others can help them combine their strengths and design their teaching more effectively.

TPACK also suggests that when we design our course/lesson we should first think about the content and appropriate pedagogy, and then bring in the technology to support teaching. It’s easy to be distracted by a new technology and forget about the course outcomes and content, but how can we avoid it?

The SAMR model is a pedagogically and technologically complementary model to the TPACK model because in every step of technology integration you can check if you are still focused on your course outcomes.  The SAMR model allows us to see if the technology integration has made any functional change to our course design. It’s a great way to evaluate how technology is used in our classroom to provide a better learning experience for students, as opposed to only using a device or replacing pen/pencil with more expensive technological devices.


Technology integration (if done well) can provide collaboration, creativity and active learning experiences for the students, and it can make your course more accessible. On the other hand, it can be inappropriate if the course is not designed carefully  with enough attention to the context, content, and pedagogy. This may cause frustration for students and teachers.

If you would like to know more about the TPACK or SMAR models, and would like to have peer feedback on your course design, contact KCELT Instructional Designers, Maryam Rod Szabo (, or Wilson Rojas ( We would love to work with you to integrate technology that enhances student learning!

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